Understanding and controlling some of the AVX shuffle emission paths

Hi everyone,

I am experimenting with LLVM lowering, intrinsics and shufflevector in general.

Here is an IR that I produce with the objective of emitting some vblendps instructions: https://gist.github.com/nicolasvasilache/0fe30c83cbfe5b4776ec9f0ee465611a.

I compile this further with

clang -x ir -emit-llvm -S -mcpu=haswell -O3 -o - | llc -O3 -mcpu=haswell - -o -

to obtain:

https://gist.github.com/nicolasvasilache/2c773b86fcda01cc28711828a0a9ce0a

At this point, I would expect to see some vblendps instructions generated for the pieces of IR that produce %48/%49 %51/%52 %54/%55 and %57/%58 to reduce pressure on port 5 (vblendps can also go on ports 0 and 1). However the expected instruction does not get generated and llvm-mca continues to show me high port 5 contention.

Could people suggest some steps / commands to help better understand why my expectation is not met and whether I can do something to make the compiler generate what I want? Thanks in advance!

I have verified independently that in isolation, a single such shuffle creates a vblendps. I see them being recombined in the produced assembly and I am looking for experimenting with avoiding that vshufps + vblendps + vblendps get recombined into vunpckxxx + vunpckxxx instructions.

Hi everyone,

I am experimenting with LLVM lowering, intrinsics and shufflevector in general.

Here is an IR that I produce with the objective of emitting some vblendps instructions: https://gist.github.com/nicolasvasilache/0fe30c83cbfe5b4776ec9f0ee465611a.

From what I can see, the original IR code was (effectively):

8 x UNPCKLPS/UNPCKHPS
4 x SHUFPS
8 x BLENDPS
4 x INSERTF128
4 x PERM2F128

I compile this further with

clang -x ir -emit-llvm -S -mcpu=haswell -O3 -o - | llc -O3 -mcpu=haswell - -o -

to obtain:

https://gist.github.com/nicolasvasilache/2c773b86fcda01cc28711828a0a9ce0a

and after the x86 shuffle combines:

8 x UNPCKLPS/UNPCKHPS
8 x UNPCKLPD/UNPCKHPD
4 x INSERTF128
4 x PERM2F128

Starting from each BLENDPS, they've combined with the SHUFPS to create the UNPCK*PD nodes. We nearly always benefit from folding shuffle chains to reduce total instruction counts, even if some inner nodes have multiple uses (like the SHUFPS), and I'd hate to lose that.

At this point, I would expect to see some vblendps instructions generated for the pieces of IR that produce %48/%49 %51/%52 %54/%55 and %57/%58 to reduce pressure on port 5 (vblendps can also go on ports 0 and 1). However the expected instruction does not get generated and llvm-mca continues to show me high port 5 contention.

Could people suggest some steps / commands to help better understand why my expectation is not met and whether I can do something to make the compiler generate what I want? Thanks in advance!

So on Haswell, we've gained 4 extra Port5-only shuffles but removed the 8 Port015 blends.

We have very little arch-specific shuffle combines, just the fast-variable-shuffle tuning flags to avoid unnecessary shuffle mask loads, the shuffle combines just aims for the reduction in simple target shuffle nodes. And tbh I'm reluctant to add to this as shuffle combining is complex already.

We should be preferring to lower/combine to BLENDPS in more circumstances (its commutable and never slower than any other target shuffle, although demanded elts can do less with 'undef' elements), but that won't help us here.

So far I've failed to find a BLEND-based 8x8 transpose pattern that the shuffle combiner doesn't manage to combine back to the 8xUNPCK/SHUFPS ops :frowning:

Hi everyone,

I am experimenting with LLVM lowering, intrinsics and shufflevector in general.

Here is an IR that I produce with the objective of emitting some vblendps instructions: https://gist.github.com/nicolasvasilache/0fe30c83cbfe5b4776ec9f0ee465611a.

From what I can see, the original IR code was (effectively):

8 x UNPCKLPS/UNPCKHPS
4 x SHUFPS
8 x BLENDPS
4 x INSERTF128
4 x PERM2F128

I compile this further with

clang -x ir -emit-llvm -S -mcpu=haswell -O3 -o - | llc -O3 -mcpu=haswell - -o -

to obtain:

https://gist.github.com/nicolasvasilache/2c773b86fcda01cc28711828a0a9ce0a

and after the x86 shuffle combines:

8 x UNPCKLPS/UNPCKHPS
8 x UNPCKLPD/UNPCKHPD
4 x INSERTF128
4 x PERM2F128

Starting from each BLENDPS, they've combined with the SHUFPS to create the UNPCK*PD nodes. We nearly always benefit from folding shuffle chains to reduce total instruction counts, even if some inner nodes have multiple uses (like the SHUFPS), and I'd hate to lose that.

At this point, I would expect to see some vblendps instructions generated for the pieces of IR that produce %48/%49 %51/%52 %54/%55 and %57/%58 to reduce pressure on port 5 (vblendps can also go on ports 0 and 1). However the expected instruction does not get generated and llvm-mca continues to show me high port 5 contention.

Could people suggest some steps / commands to help better understand why my expectation is not met and whether I can do something to make the compiler generate what I want? Thanks in advance!

So on Haswell, we've gained 4 extra Port5-only shuffles but removed the 8 Port015 blends.

We have very little arch-specific shuffle combines, just the fast-variable-shuffle tuning flags to avoid unnecessary shuffle mask loads, the shuffle combines just aims for the reduction in simple target shuffle nodes. And tbh I'm reluctant to add to this as shuffle combining is complex already.

We should be preferring to lower/combine to BLENDPS in more circumstances (its commutable and never slower than any other target shuffle, although demanded elts can do less with 'undef' elements), but that won't help us here.

So far I've failed to find a BLEND-based 8x8 transpose pattern that the shuffle combiner doesn't manage to combine back to the 8xUNPCK/SHUFPS ops :frowning:

The only thing I can think of is you might want to see if you can reorder the INSERTF128/PERM2F128 shuffles in between the UNPACK*PS and the SHUFPS/BLENDPS:

8 x UNPCKLPS/UNPCKHPS
4 x INSERTF128
4 x PERM2F128
4 x SHUFPS
8 x BLENDPS

Splitting the per-lane shuffles with the subvector-shuffles could help stop the shuffle combiner.

+Nicolas Vasilache :slight_smile:

+Nicolas Vasilache :slight_smile:

Thanks Diego, email is hard, I could not find ways to inject myself into my own discussion…

Hi everyone,

I am experimenting with LLVM lowering, intrinsics and shufflevector
in general.

Here is an IR that I produce with the objective of emitting some
vblendps instructions:
https://gist.github.com/nicolasvasilache/0fe30c83cbfe5b4776ec9f0ee465611a.

From what I can see, the original IR code was (effectively):

8 x UNPCKLPS/UNPCKHPS
4 x SHUFPS
8 x BLENDPS
4 x INSERTF128
4 x PERM2F128

I compile this further with

clang -x ir -emit-llvm -S -mcpu=haswell -O3 -o - | llc -O3
-mcpu=haswell - -o -

to obtain:

https://gist.github.com/nicolasvasilache/2c773b86fcda01cc28711828a0a9ce0a

and after the x86 shuffle combines:

8 x UNPCKLPS/UNPCKHPS
8 x UNPCKLPD/UNPCKHPD
4 x INSERTF128
4 x PERM2F128

Starting from each BLENDPS, they’ve combined with the SHUFPS to create
the UNPCK*PD nodes. We nearly always benefit from folding shuffle
chains to reduce total instruction counts, even if some inner nodes
have multiple uses (like the SHUFPS), and I’d hate to lose that.

At this point, I would expect to see some vblendps instructions
generated for the pieces of IR that produce %48/%49 %51/%52 %54/%55
and %57/%58 to reduce pressure on port 5 (vblendps can also go on
ports 0 and 1). However the expected instruction does not get
generated and llvm-mca continues to show me high port 5 contention.

Could people suggest some steps / commands to help better understand
why my expectation is not met and whether I can do something to make
the compiler generate what I want? Thanks in advance!
So on Haswell, we’ve gained 4 extra Port5-only shuffles but removed
the 8 Port015 blends.

We have very little arch-specific shuffle combines, just the
fast-variable-shuffle tuning flags to avoid unnecessary shuffle mask
loads, the shuffle combines just aims for the reduction in simple
target shuffle nodes. And tbh I’m reluctant to add to this as shuffle
combining is complex already.

We should be preferring to lower/combine to BLENDPS in more
circumstances (its commutable and never slower than any other target
shuffle, although demanded elts can do less with ‘undef’ elements),
but that won’t help us here.

So far I’ve failed to find a BLEND-based 8x8 transpose pattern that
the shuffle combiner doesn’t manage to combine back to the
8xUNPCK/SHUFPS ops :frowning:

If you are referring to this specific code, yes same for me.
If you are thinking about the general 8x8 transpose problem, I have a version with vector<4xf32> loads that ends up using blends; as expected, the port 5 pressure reduction helps and both llvm-mca and runtime agree that this is 20-30% faster.

The only thing I can think of is you might want to see if you can
reorder the INSERTF128/PERM2F128 shuffles in between the UNPACK*PS and
the SHUFPS/BLENDPS:

8 x UNPCKLPS/UNPCKHPS
4 x INSERTF128
4 x PERM2F128
4 x SHUFPS
8 x BLENDPS

Splitting the per-lane shuffles with the subvector-shuffles could help
stop the shuffle combiner.

Right, I tried different variations here but invariably getting the same result.
The vector<4xf32> based version is something that I also want to target for a bunch of orthogonal reasons.
I’ll note that my use case is MLIR codegen with explicit vectors and intrinsics → LLVM so I have quite some flexibility.
But it feels unnatural in the compiler flow to have to branch off at a significant higher-level of abstraction to sidestep concerns related to X86 microarchitecture details.

As I am very new to this part of LLVM, I am not sure what is feasible or not. Would it be envisionnable to either:

  1. have a way to inject some numeric cost to influence the value of some resulting combinations?
  2. revive some form of intrinsic and guarantee that the instruction would be generated?

I realize point 2. is contrary to the evolution of LLVM as these intrinsics were removed ca. 2015 in favor of the combiner-based approach.
Still it seems that we have very little arch-specific shuffle combines could be the signal that such intrinsics are needed?

As I am very new to this part of LLVM, I am not sure what is feasible or not. Would it be envisionnable to either:

  1. have a way to inject some numeric cost to influence the value of some resulting combinations?
  1. revive some form of intrinsic and guarantee that the instruction would be generated?

I think a feasible way is to add a new tuningXXX feature for given targets and do something different with the flag in the combine.

  1. seems overengineering and 2) seems overkilled for potential opportunities by the combine.

Thanks

Phoebe

Nicolas - have you investigated just using inline asm instead?

Not yet, the InlineAsmOp in MLIR is still generally unused.
It has been used a bit in the IREE project though (https://github.com/google/iree/blob/49a81c60329437e64791ee1abd09d47fe1cde205/iree/compiler/Codegen/LLVMCPU/VectorContractToAArch64InlineAsmOp.cpp#L103).

I should be be indeed able to intersperse my lowering (https://github.com/llvm/llvm-project/blob/main/mlir/lib/Dialect/X86Vector/Transforms/AVXTranspose.cpp#L124) with some InlineAsmOp uses.
I’ll report back when I have something.

FYI, a commit is up for the inline asm change: https://reviews.llvm.org/D114335.

For (my) future self-reference, here is the code to auto-generate
the IR patterns for transpose: https://godbolt.org/z/PfcWrnss4

Roman