Complex to Libm conversion ABI issues

I believe there’s an ABI issue in the Complex to Libm conversion, as MLIR complex types are always lowered to LLVM structs of two elements, but this isn’t necessarily the ABI convention for every target.

For example, complex floats on x86_64 are are lowered by clang to [2 x float] rather than {float, float}, so if you pass a complex<f32> from MLIR into e.g. cpow from libm you get an ABI break currently.

I saw a discussion previously at C representation of complex types? where the conclusion was that MLIR should only have a contract with LLVM and not a platform ABI. This is fine for C calling in to MLIR as in the example there, but when lowering to a call to a C function we definitely can’t ignore the platform ABI or we will get incorrect results.

As a concrete example, the following code doesn’t lower correctly for x86_64

func.func @foo(%i:complex<f32>, %j:complex<f32>) -> (complex<f32>) {
  %o = complex.pow %i, %j : complex<f32>
  return %o : complex<f32>

Compiled with mlir-opt --convert-complex-to-libm test.mlir --convert-complex-to-llvm --convert-func-to-llvm | mlir-translate --mlir-to-llvmir -

declare { float, float } @cpowf({ float, float }, { float, float })
define { float, float } @foo({ float, float } %0, { float, float } %1) !dbg !3 {
  %3 = call { float, float } @cpowf({ float, float } %0, { float, float } %1), !dbg !7
  ret { float, float } %3, !dbg !9

which is not the correct signature for cpowf, so you get an incorrect result if you call this function (even if it’s called from MLIR not from C).

I’m not sure what the solution is here, is MLIR target aware in any way? If so, the complex to libm conversion could possibly add code to change the {float, float} to [2 x float] before the call on x86_64?


C ABI is a notoriously difficult issue unfortunately. This is something that clang/LLVM hasn’t been able to cleanly extract and expose: this is a known issue but also seems like a fairly massive amount of work…

Could we possibly introduce an expansion for these that doesn’t use libm and go through that instead then? My concern is that these operations are currently only able to be lowered by calls to libm and that lowering doesn’t work in the general case due to ABI issues, so it’s not really possible to rely on these operations at the moment.

Edit: For context, I was hoping to use the MLIR complex dialect to implement complex operations in Flang, as that seems the best way to deduplicate effort, but right now we can’t use it because it doesn’t work on some platforms.

ComplexToStandard or --convert-complex-to-standard might be what you want.

Could this problem be solved in a similar way that the Rust language solved it? Allowing one to define the calling convention on a per function call basis.
Thus allowing complex<f32> to mean {float, float} for some function calls, and [2 x float] for others.

Since there are no immediate plans to add ABI handling in a general fashion, is it OK to have this particular conversion pass, have some target specific information handling? An invocation can be like the following with the target being optional.

mlir-opt --convert-complex-to-libm="target=x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu"

Or something line the MathToFuncs pass (llvm-project/math-to-funcs.mlir at main · llvm/llvm-project · GitHub).

Another option would be to check whether we can move the target specific handling in FIR to MLIR. llvm-project/Target.cpp at main · llvm/llvm-project · GitHub